Wednesday, October 31, 2018

Cisco announces 400G datacenter Switch

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Cisco announces 400G datacenter Switch

Oct 31, 2018- Today Cisco announces 400G Datacenter switch. Earlier Arista, Edge Core announced 400G switches in the market. Cisco come up with the various models in 400G datacenter switches.

With the new Cisco Datacenter 400G switches which permit customers to produce more impressive networks, extra cost-effectively and in a segment of the space. They bring four times the bandwidth and four times the scale of existing switches with the same power. The new Cisco 400G switches are built on Cisco’s leading Nexus portfolio having NS-OX operation IOS image, clients can pick to deploy 400G in the way that unsurpassed meets their requirements. They can be used on their peculiar or in combination with Cisco’s leading security, automation, visibility and analytics software.

Similarly Arista, Cisco used QSFP-DD modules for the 400G connectivity for the next generation networks. They are trying to build the bi-directional 400 G optical networking.

Fig 1.1- Cisco datacenter 400G Switches
With the help of Cisco 400G Datacenter switching portfolio, we can get the below support:
  • We will have Superfast policy, segmentation and whitelisting
  • You can get the Real-time visibility into packets, flows and events ,beyond just data sampling and system telemetry.
  • You can have Smart buffering for big data or storage and machine learning workloads with dynamic packet prioritization
  • You can have the Lowest latency, with an ability to prioritize critical traffic on demand.

Various models supporting 400G in the datacenter portfolio
Cisco Nexus 9316D-GX : 1RU switch
Nexus 93600CD-GX: 1RU switch
Nexus 3408-S: 4RU switch
Nexus 3432D-S: 1RU switch

Nexus 9316D-GX
This is a 1RU fixed switch having 400 G ports. You can get 16 ports with 400G of speed. It can be used as Spine switch in Spine-Leaf architecture.

Nexus 93600CD-GX
This is a 1RU fixed switch having 400G ports. You can get 28 ports with 400G of speed. It can be used as Spine switch in Spine-Leaf architecture.

Nexus 3408-S
This is a 4RU switch with 8 slot chassis, This switch can provide total of 128 ports of 100G or 32 ports of 400G.

Nexus 3432D-S
This is also a 1RU fixed switch with 400G ports. You can have 32 ports with native 10/40/100/400G and break-out 2 x 200G and 4 x 50/100G.

We will come up with all these switches in details to discuss more on

Wednesday, October 24, 2018

Arista Introduces 400 Gigabit Datacenter Switching Platforms

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Arista Introduces 400 Gigabit Datacenter Switching Platforms
Arista Comes up with 400Gb Switch in the market on 23rd Oct, 2018. It was proposed by Arista that the new 400G fixed systems bring the performance that hyper scale cloud networks and datacenters need for the development of applications such as AI (artificial intelligence), machine learning, and server less compute.

The New Arista 400 Gb Switching platforms which are based on the Broadcom 12.8 Tbps Tomahawk 3 silicon, support 32 400G ports in a dense 1U chassis. In addition, each 400G port can be fragmented into four 100G ports, which supports a total of 128 100G ports in a 1U chassis.

Arista comes up with 7060X4 models which support 400 Gb support. The Arista Switch 7060X4 Series is accessible in two configurations supporting with both OSFP and QSFP-DD 400G optics modules. The Arista’s 7060PX4-32 model upkeeps 32 ports of OSFP. 
Check out the difference between OSPF and QSFP-DD

Fig 1.1- Arista 400 Gb Switching Platform- 7060X4

The Arista 7060DX4-32 has 32 ports of QSFP-DD, with the consistent 7060X Series architecture.

Key features of Switch
  • 4X increase in bandwidth compared to the Current 100G 1U switches
  • Enhanced joint buffer to lower application latency for AI and storage loads
  • Elephant Flow Detector for advanced traffic management
  • Traffic awareness with Dynamic Load Balancing and Dynamic Group Multipath to improve performance in large cloud and HPC networks
  • Increased routing capacity combined with 2X IO increase for hyper scale leaf-spine
  • Low power optimized with uncompromised performance at 12.8 Tbps
  • Consistent EOS support including cloud-based automation, analytics and availability
  • Choice of OSFP and QSFP-DD optics supporting 50G/100G/200G and 400G speeds

Saturday, October 20, 2018

Arista Acquired Mojo Networks

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Arista Acquired Mojo Networks

Arista Networks acquired Mojo Networks and Arista Networks announced their entry into campus networking under the solution “Cognitive Cloud Campus”. Mojo networks is named under the visionary in Gartner quadrant n wired and wireless networking and hence with this move Arista Networks comes into the campus wired and wireless networking.

Arista Networks founded software-driven, intellectual cloud networking for large-scale datacenter and campus atmospheres. Arista's award-winning platforms redefine and bring availability, agility, automation, analytics and security. 
Fig 1.1- Arista Acquires Mojo Networks
Arista has transported more than 15 million cloud networking ports worldwide with Cloud Vision and EOS, an innovative network operating system. Dedicated to open standards across private, public and hybrid cloud solutions, Arista products are supported worldwide directly and through partners.

“Mojo’s Wi-Fi is disrupting the old-fashioned closed wireless controller model, to bring radical improvements in scale and economics,” said John McCool, Chief Platform Officer and Senior Vice President of Engineering and Operations for Arista Networks.

Analysts from Morningstar investments report that Arista’s expansion into campus networking was at the request of existing customers who are currently using Data Center networking within their campus environments. 

Arista in close partnership with VMware will expand opportunities from Data Center into campus, branch, IOT and edge, Arista’s main attack on traditional 3-tier campus networks not only attacks Cisco, but also their access networking partner HPE Aruba.

This strategy hinges on intent-based networking enhancements to their CloudVision SDN controller highlighting the value proposition of unified management for Data Center, Campus, and Branch.

This declaration allows Arista to enter for campus openings where it may already have a Data Center impression or through partner pull-through. But this tactic being prejudiced on fragmented partnerships and meeting competing products also puts them at jeopardy of not being able to execute on what customers actually require.

Let’s see how the Arista will act on their customers with the new portfolio of the wired and Wireless domain.

Monday, October 8, 2018

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

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Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol that is used on a computer network to help automate routing decisions and configuration. The protocol was designed by Cisco Systems as a proprietary protocol, available only on Cisco routers, but Cisco converted it to an open standard in 2013.
" So now EIGRP is a Open Standard Routing Protocol, It means EIGRP can be used in other vendors as well"

Now question arises, Why EIGRP replaced IGRP Protocol ?
One of the major reasons for this was because the design of the Internet Protocol had been changed to support classless IPv4 addresses, which IGRP could not support.
" EIGRP Replaces IGRP protocol because IGRP doesn't support Classless inter domain routing"

Fig 1.1- EIGRP

EIGRP uses the following tables to store information:-
Routing table, Neighbor Table and Topology Table, Lets Start discussing about all these tables.
  • Routing Table:-That contains rules by which traffic is forwarded in a network. If the router does not contain a valid path to the destination, the traffic is discarded and the path is not there in the routing table.
  • Neighbor Table: The neighbor table keeps a record of the IP addresses of routers that have a direct physical connection with this router. Routers that are connected to this router indirectly, through another router are not recorded in this table as they are not considered neighbors.
  • Topology Table: The topology table stores routes that it has learned from neighbor routing tables. Unlike a routing table, the topology table does not store all routes, but only routes that have been determined by EIGRP. The topology table also records the metrics for each of the listed EIGRP routes, the feasible successor and the successors. Routes in the topology table are marked as "passive" or "active". Passive indicates that EIGRP has determined the path for the specific route and has finished processing. Active indicates that EIGRP is still trying to calculate the best path for the specific route. Routes in the topology table are not usable by the router until they are inserted into the routing table. The topology table is never used by the router to forward traffic
EIGRP supports the following features:-
  • Support for Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) and variable length subnet masking. Routes are not summarized at the classful network boundary unless auto summary is enabled.
  •  Support for load balancing on parallel links between sites.
  • The ability to use different authentication passwords at different times.
  •  MD5 authentication between two routers.
  • Sends topology changes, rather than sending the entire routing table when a route is changed.
  • Periodically checks if a route is available and propagates routing changes to neighboring routers if any changes have occurred.
  • Runs separate routing processes for Internet Protocol (IP), IPv6, IPX and AppleTalk through the use of protocol-dependent modules (PDMs).
  • Backwards compatibility with the IGRP routing protocols
" So EIGRP protocol with so many features is better to use rather than any RIP, IGRP protocols"

EIGRP Technical Specifications:-
  • EIGRP is a distance vector routing protocol that uses the diffusing update algorithm (DUAL)
  • EIGRP routing information exchanged to a router from another router within the same autonomous system has a default  with AD 90.
  • EIGRP routing information that has come from an EIGRP-enabled router outside the autonomous system has a default AD of 170
  • EIGRP Summary routes has a default AD of 5.
  • EIGRP does not operate using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). This means that EIGRP does not use a port number to identify traffic.
  • Since EIGRP does not use TCP for communication, it implements Cisco's Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) to ensure that EIGRP router updates are delivered to all neighbors completely. 
  • EIGRP uses port no 88 on RTC to identify traffic.
  • The reliable transport protocol also contains other mechanisms to maximize efficiency and support Multicasting. 
" So EIGRP protocol having AD 90 for internal, AD 170 for external and AD 5 for summary routes"

" EIGRP is not Application layer protocol, as it doesn't using TCP or UDP for identify Traffic, while it uses RTC with port no 88 to identify traffic and RTC is the part of EIGRP" 

EIGRP composite and vector metrics:-

  • Bandwidth: Minimum Bandwidth (in kilobits per second) along the path from router to destination network.
  • Load: Number in range 1 to 255; 255 being saturated
  • Delay: Delay, in 10s of microseconds, along the path from router to destination network
  • Reliability: Number in range 1 to 255; 255 being the most reliable
  • MTU: Minimum path Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU).
\bigg [ \bigg ( K_1 \cdot {\text{Bandwidth}}_{E} + \frac{K_2 \cdot {\text{Bandwidth}}_{E}}{256-\text{Load}} + K_3 \cdot {\text{Delay}}_{E}
                      \bigg )
         \cdot \frac {K_5}{K_4 + \text{Reliability}} \bigg ] \cdot 256
where the various constants (K_1 through K_5) can be set by the user to produce varying behaviours. An important and unintuitive fact is that if K_5 is set to zero, the term \tfrac {K_5}{K_4 + \text{Reliability}} is not used (i.e. taken as 1).
The default is for K_1 and K_3 to be set to 1, and the rest to zero, effectively reducing the above formula to ({\text{Bandwidth}}_{E} + \text{Delay}_{E}) \cdot 256.

This is all about the basics of Part-1 in EIGRP, we will discuss in Part-2 about the IOS configurations, Feasible Successor, Active and passive state, Feasibility condition and a running example with Scenario.

WAN Optimizer: Riverbed SteelHead EX

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WAN Optimizer: Riverbed SteelHead EX
Riverbed metallic Head EX combines pleasant-in-class optimization with virtualization and storage consolidation to your branch places of work and all their applications walking at height overall performance throughout hybrid networks. 

With the help of steel Head EX allows you to consolidate previously orphaned offerings onto the first converged infrastructure answer purpose-built for the department. Consolidating and virtualizing with steel head EX streamlines operations, decreases costs, simplifies control and allows more responsive carrier delivery.

With growing strain to do more with fewer resources in branch places of work, it's far an increasing number of centralizing and virtualizing branch office servers to reduce costs and streamline control.

Fig 1.1- Riverbed SteelHead EX

The Riverbed  Steel Head EX series is a specialized product line focused on the needs of active branch offices. The Riverbed Steel Head EX series combines WAN optimization and virtualization to enable organizations to meet the needs of the active branch office with an enterprise-class branch office box. 

Built on VMware, the Steel Head EX series offers the performance of the award winning RiOS and flexibility of the Riverbed Virtual Services Platform (VSP) for greater consolidation than ever before. 

The Steel Head EX series offers a new approach to consolidating branch office infrastructure, enabling the fluid enterprise by simplifying branch management, reducing costs, and increasing operational agility. 

Some of what sets Steel Head EX apart is:
  • Next Generation Consolidation on an Enterprise Branch Office Box
  • High Performance Appliances for the Active Branch
  • RiOS Performance
  • Riverbed Virtual Services Platform (VSP)
Services such as DNS, DHCP, and print services continue to remain in the branch on dedicated, remote servers. This limitation increases management complexity, as well as the operational and capital costs of running a branch office.  With Steel Head EX, you can virtually run network and application services in any branch office. 

Every Steel Head EX solution features the Riverbed Virtual Services Platform (VSP), a dedicated platform with VMware v Sphere virtualization services that can be run virtually in any branch office to enable consolidation.

Deploying Steel Head EX, you can run edge services virtually in all of your branch offices — without having to deploy and manage standalone servers.
Steel Head EX provides:
  • Increases application and data transfer performance up to 100x
  • Eliminates the need to purchase, maintain, and protect stand-alone servers in branch offices
  • Dynamically selects the best application path possibilities based on application-aware, business intent-based policies and network availability
  • Reduces IT infrastructure complexity and simplifies management by combining services onto a high-performance branch-office solution
  • Ensures business continuity and rapid recovery from disasters or interruptions
  • Reduces bandwidth utilization by up to 95%, thus deferring costly network bandwidth upgrades
Steel Head EX 560 Series
Steel Head EX 760 Series

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