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Monday, October 8, 2018

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

ılılılı Inderdeep Singh ılılılı
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol that is used on a computer network to help automate routing decisions and configuration. The protocol was designed by Cisco Systems as a proprietary protocol, available only on Cisco routers, but Cisco converted it to an open standard in 2013.
" So now EIGRP is a Open Standard Routing Protocol, It means EIGRP can be used in other vendors as well"

Now question arises, Why EIGRP replaced IGRP Protocol ?
One of the major reasons for this was because the design of the Internet Protocol had been changed to support classless IPv4 addresses, which IGRP could not support.
" EIGRP Replaces IGRP protocol because IGRP doesn't support Classless inter domain routing"

Fig 1.1- EIGRP

EIGRP uses the following tables to store information:-
Routing table, Neighbor Table and Topology Table, Lets Start discussing about all these tables.
  • Routing Table:-That contains rules by which traffic is forwarded in a network. If the router does not contain a valid path to the destination, the traffic is discarded and the path is not there in the routing table.
  • Neighbor Table: The neighbor table keeps a record of the IP addresses of routers that have a direct physical connection with this router. Routers that are connected to this router indirectly, through another router are not recorded in this table as they are not considered neighbors.
  • Topology Table: The topology table stores routes that it has learned from neighbor routing tables. Unlike a routing table, the topology table does not store all routes, but only routes that have been determined by EIGRP. The topology table also records the metrics for each of the listed EIGRP routes, the feasible successor and the successors. Routes in the topology table are marked as "passive" or "active". Passive indicates that EIGRP has determined the path for the specific route and has finished processing. Active indicates that EIGRP is still trying to calculate the best path for the specific route. Routes in the topology table are not usable by the router until they are inserted into the routing table. The topology table is never used by the router to forward traffic
EIGRP supports the following features:-
  • Support for Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) and variable length subnet masking. Routes are not summarized at the classful network boundary unless auto summary is enabled.
  •  Support for load balancing on parallel links between sites.
  • The ability to use different authentication passwords at different times.
  •  MD5 authentication between two routers.
  • Sends topology changes, rather than sending the entire routing table when a route is changed.
  • Periodically checks if a route is available and propagates routing changes to neighboring routers if any changes have occurred.
  • Runs separate routing processes for Internet Protocol (IP), IPv6, IPX and AppleTalk through the use of protocol-dependent modules (PDMs).
  • Backwards compatibility with the IGRP routing protocols
" So EIGRP protocol with so many features is better to use rather than any RIP, IGRP protocols"

EIGRP Technical Specifications:-
  • EIGRP is a distance vector routing protocol that uses the diffusing update algorithm (DUAL)
  • EIGRP routing information exchanged to a router from another router within the same autonomous system has a default  with AD 90.
  • EIGRP routing information that has come from an EIGRP-enabled router outside the autonomous system has a default AD of 170
  • EIGRP Summary routes has a default AD of 5.
  • EIGRP does not operate using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). This means that EIGRP does not use a port number to identify traffic.
  • Since EIGRP does not use TCP for communication, it implements Cisco's Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) to ensure that EIGRP router updates are delivered to all neighbors completely. 
  • EIGRP uses port no 88 on RTC to identify traffic.
  • The reliable transport protocol also contains other mechanisms to maximize efficiency and support Multicasting. 
" So EIGRP protocol having AD 90 for internal, AD 170 for external and AD 5 for summary routes"

" EIGRP is not Application layer protocol, as it doesn't using TCP or UDP for identify Traffic, while it uses RTC with port no 88 to identify traffic and RTC is the part of EIGRP" 

EIGRP composite and vector metrics:-

  • Bandwidth: Minimum Bandwidth (in kilobits per second) along the path from router to destination network.
  • Load: Number in range 1 to 255; 255 being saturated
  • Delay: Delay, in 10s of microseconds, along the path from router to destination network
  • Reliability: Number in range 1 to 255; 255 being the most reliable
  • MTU: Minimum path Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU).
\bigg [ \bigg ( K_1 \cdot {\text{Bandwidth}}_{E} + \frac{K_2 \cdot {\text{Bandwidth}}_{E}}{256-\text{Load}} + K_3 \cdot {\text{Delay}}_{E}
                      \bigg )
         \cdot \frac {K_5}{K_4 + \text{Reliability}} \bigg ] \cdot 256
where the various constants (K_1 through K_5) can be set by the user to produce varying behaviours. An important and unintuitive fact is that if K_5 is set to zero, the term \tfrac {K_5}{K_4 + \text{Reliability}} is not used (i.e. taken as 1).
The default is for K_1 and K_3 to be set to 1, and the rest to zero, effectively reducing the above formula to ({\text{Bandwidth}}_{E} + \text{Delay}_{E}) \cdot 256.

This is all about the basics of Part-1 in EIGRP, we will discuss in Part-2 about the IOS configurations, Feasible Successor, Active and passive state, Feasibility condition and a running example with Scenario.


WAN Optimizer: Riverbed SteelHead EX

ılılılı Inderdeep Singh ılılılı
WAN Optimizer: Riverbed SteelHead EX
Riverbed metallic Head EX combines pleasant-in-class optimization with virtualization and storage consolidation to your branch places of work and all their applications walking at height overall performance throughout hybrid networks. 


With the help of steel Head EX allows you to consolidate previously orphaned offerings onto the first converged infrastructure answer purpose-built for the department. Consolidating and virtualizing with steel head EX streamlines operations, decreases costs, simplifies control and allows more responsive carrier delivery.

With growing strain to do more with fewer resources in branch places of work, it's far an increasing number of centralizing and virtualizing branch office servers to reduce costs and streamline control.


Fig 1.1- Riverbed SteelHead EX


The Riverbed  Steel Head EX series is a specialized product line focused on the needs of active branch offices. The Riverbed Steel Head EX series combines WAN optimization and virtualization to enable organizations to meet the needs of the active branch office with an enterprise-class branch office box. 

Built on VMware, the Steel Head EX series offers the performance of the award winning RiOS and flexibility of the Riverbed Virtual Services Platform (VSP) for greater consolidation than ever before. 

The Steel Head EX series offers a new approach to consolidating branch office infrastructure, enabling the fluid enterprise by simplifying branch management, reducing costs, and increasing operational agility. 

Some of what sets Steel Head EX apart is:
  • Next Generation Consolidation on an Enterprise Branch Office Box
  • High Performance Appliances for the Active Branch
  • RiOS Performance
  • Riverbed Virtual Services Platform (VSP)
Services such as DNS, DHCP, and print services continue to remain in the branch on dedicated, remote servers. This limitation increases management complexity, as well as the operational and capital costs of running a branch office.  With Steel Head EX, you can virtually run network and application services in any branch office. 

Every Steel Head EX solution features the Riverbed Virtual Services Platform (VSP), a dedicated platform with VMware v Sphere virtualization services that can be run virtually in any branch office to enable consolidation.

Deploying Steel Head EX, you can run edge services virtually in all of your branch offices — without having to deploy and manage standalone servers.
Steel Head EX provides:
  • Increases application and data transfer performance up to 100x
  • Eliminates the need to purchase, maintain, and protect stand-alone servers in branch offices
  • Dynamically selects the best application path possibilities based on application-aware, business intent-based policies and network availability
  • Reduces IT infrastructure complexity and simplifies management by combining services onto a high-performance branch-office solution
  • Ensures business continuity and rapid recovery from disasters or interruptions
  • Reduces bandwidth utilization by up to 95%, thus deferring costly network bandwidth upgrades
Models:
Steel Head EX 560 Series
Steel Head EX 760 Series

Riverbed WAN Optimizer: SteelHead DX

ılılılı Inderdeep Singh ılılılı

Riverbed WAN Optimizer: SteelHead DX
Steel Head DX is purpose-built for the optimization of records middle-to-statistics middle workloads, turning in up to 60x enhancements in throughput across hybrid networks with high latency and/or packet loss and lowering bandwidth requirements by up to 99%.

Metal Head DX can optimize, transfer and replicate information with more visibility and manage, all with much less fee and hazard. This ensures you could obtain carrier degree agreements, make certain fast statistics recuperation instances and enhance enterprise continuity Steel Head DX equipment gives the excellent charge/performance price for optimizing statistics center to records center replication workloads, handing over improved optimized WAN potential at decrease fee. 

The Riverbed Optimization machine (RiOS) is more desirable and tailored for steel Head DX to offer elevated records streamlining and delivery streamlining performance for excessive velocity statistics switch and replication workloads and with assist for a pick out set of software streamlining optimizations for common DR applications.
 
Steel Head DX can provide superior performance, visibility, and control of commonplace catastrophe healing (DR) packages, including NetApp Snap mirror and EMC Symmetrix faraway statistics Facility (SRDF)/A. RiOS volume-granular network QoS ensures that the maximum important records replication strategies entire on time every time. best-grain visibility and manage of individual garage replication workloads ends in stepped forward performance, predictability, and enterprise making plans.

Fig 1.1- Riverbed WAN Optimizer

Improve data transfer & replication for business consolidation & continuity: Meet or exceed required SLAs, such as RPO/RTO for business continuity and disaster recovery, with increased predictability and reduced costExperience up to 60x faster performance of data transfer and replication workloads

Reduce business risk: Consistently meet performance SLAs for data transfer and replication workloads despite WAN latency, packet loss, limited bandwidth, and congestion
Improve your visibility and control of mission-critical data transfer and replication processes

Protect and grow the business: Reduce bandwidth requirements by up to 99% and Eliminate projects delays and defer cost of WAN infrastructure upgrades to support strategic business continuity initiatives

Key Features: Includes the industry-leading Riverbed Optimization System (RiOS)
RiOS customized for Steel Head DX to deliver enhanced performance for data center-to-data center workloads and Award-winning 24x7x365 customer support

Purpose built for data center-to-data center deployments: Best price/performance value for optimizing data center-to-data center replication workloads, delivering increased optimized WAN capacity at lower cost. New Turbo Data Streamlining option designed for higher data replication performance between data centers. Available only for the DX appliance. Select set of application streamlining capabilities included for common DR applications, such as NetApp Snap Mirror and EMC SRDF/A.

Enhanced Visibility and Control: Enhanced Network QoS for volume-granular traffic shaping of replication processes.Detailed throughput and bandwidth optimization reports for data replication workloads.Storage-granular optimization policies for improved WAN performance and bandwidth savings

Streamlined Management: Streamlined network integration and ease-of-management with DX -to- DX auto-discovery and Enhanced plug-n-play integration with EMC SRDF/A

With Steel Head DX, you can:
  • Experience up to 60x faster performance of data transfer and replication workloads
  • Reduce bandwidth requirements by up to 99%
  • Improve data transfer and replication for business consolidation and continuity
  • Meet or exceed required SLAs, such as RPO/RTO for business continuity and disaster recovery, with increased predictability and reduced cost  
  • Consistently meet performance SLAs for data transfer and replication workloads despite latency, packet loss, limited bandwidth and congestion
  • Improve visibility and control of mission-critical data transfer and replication processes

Friday, September 21, 2018

Networking Basics: Routers

ılılılı Inderdeep Singh ılılılı
Networking Basics: Routers

When looking at networking basics, understanding the way a network operates is the first step to understanding routing and switching. The network operates by connecting computers and peripherals using two pieces of equipment; switches and routers. 

Switches and routers, essential networking basics, enable the devices that are connected to your network to communicate with each other, as well as with other networks.Though they look quite similar, routers and switches perform very different functions in a network.

Routers, the second esteemed component of our networking basics and are used to tie multiple networks together. For example, if we would use a router to connect your networked computers to the Internet and thereby share an Internet connection among many users. The router will act as a correspondent, choosing the best route for your communication to travel so that you receive it quickly.

Routers analyze the data being sent over a network, change how it is packaged, and send it to another network, or over a different type of network. They connect your business to the outside world, protect your information from security threats, and can even decide which computers get priority over others

Fig 1.1- Basics of Router
Depending on your business and your networking plans, you can choose from routers that include different capabilities. These can include networking basics such as:
  • Firewall: Specialised software that examines incoming data and protects your business network against attacks
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN): A way to allow remote employees to safely access your network remotely
  • IP Phone network : Combine your company's computer and telephone network, using voice and conferencing technology, to simplify and unify your communications


There are lot of Cisco Router Models used in small, Big, Enterprise and Datacenter environment, Some of them are the below models used by the Cisco:-


Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Comparing : Li-Fi and Wifi Technology

ılılılı Inderdeep Singh ılılılı
#Advance Technology 
#Li-FI Technology
What is “LiFi”?

Prof. Harald Haas coined the term “LiFi” at his TED Global talk to describe the high speed, bidirectional, networked and mobile wireless communication of data using light.

Li-Fi is a bidirectional, high speed and fully networked wireless communication technology similar to Wi-Fi. Coined by Prof. Harald Haas, Li-Fi is a subset of optical wireless communications (OWC) and can be a complement to RF communication (Wi-Fi or Cellular network), or a replacement in contexts of data broadcasting.

It is wireless and uses visible light communication or infra-red and near ultraviolet (instead of radio frequency waves) spectrum, part of optical wireless communications technology, which carries much more information, and has been proposed as a solution to the RF-bandwidth limitations. A complete solution includes an industry led standardization process.

Watch the below Video for more Information:
Li-fi can deliver internet access 100 times faster than traditional wi-fi, offering speeds of up to 1Gbps (gigabit per second).
It requires a light source, such as a standard LED bulb, an internet connection and a photo detector.
It was tested this week by Estonian start-up Velmenni, in Tallinn.

Velmenni used a li-fi-enabled light bulb to transmit data at speeds of 1Gbps. Laboratory tests have shown theoretical speeds of up to 224Gbps.

It was tested in an office, to allow workers to access the internet and in an industrial space, where it provided a smart lighting solution.

Fig 1.1- Lifi Vs Wifi

The term li-fi was first coined by Prof Harald Haas from Edinburgh University, who demonstrated the technology at a Ted (Technology, Entertainment and Design) conference in 2011.

Prof Haas described a future when billions of light bulbs could become wireless hotspots.
One of the big advantages of li-fi is the fact that, unlike wi-fi, it does not interfere with other radio signals, so could be utilised on aircraft and in other places where interference is an issue.
While the spectrum for radio waves is in short supply, the visible light spectrum is 10,000 times larger, meaning it is unlikely to run out any time soon.

But the technology also has its drawbacks - most notably the fact that it cannot be deployed outdoors in direct sunlight, because that would interfere with its signal.

Neither can the technology travel through walls so initial use is likely to be limited to places where it can be used to supplement wi-fi networks, such as in congested urban areas or places where wi-fi is not safe, such as hospitals.

Inter-VXLAN Routing Design

ılılılı Inderdeep Singh ılılılı
As with traditional VLAN environment, routing between VXLAN segments or from VXLAN to VLAN segments is required in many situations. Because the current Cisco NX-OS releases (Release 6.1(2)I2(3) and earlier) don’t support VXLAN routing, specific designs need to be applied to achieve this network function.
Inter-VXLAN Routing Design Option A: Routing Block Design
Figure 14 depicts a VXLAN routing solution by adding a routing block to the Layer 3 pod network. The routing block has a router-on-a-stick design consisting of a VTEP or a pair of vPC VTEPs to terminate VXLAN tunnels, and one or a pair of routers that serve as the IP gateway for the VXLAN-extended VLANs and perform routing functions for these VLANs



For Layer 2 traffic within a VXLAN VNI, the traffic will go directly between the local VTEP and the remote VTEPs. For Layer 3 routed traffic between VXLAN VNIs, the traffic will first reach the IP gateway of the source VXLAN VLAN IP subnet that is on the routers in the routing block and will be routed to the destination VXLAN VLAN IP subnet by the gateway router. The gateway router will then forward the packets back to the VTEP in the routing block for encapsulation in the destination VXLAN and forwarding toward the destination host. The logical traffic flow is shown in Figure below:-




Routing Block Configuration
The routing block in the recommended design for VXLAN routing consists of a physical VTEP or vPC VTEP pair that converts VXLAN VNIs back to VLANs, and a router or a pair of routers that functions as the IP gateway for the VLAN IP subnets and routes between VLAN IP subnets. For device redundancy, redundant VTEP devices, such as a pair of Cisco Nexus 9300 as vPC VTEPs and a pair of routers running a first-hop redundancy protocol such as Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP), are recommended.

Figure 16 shows a sample VXLAN routing block that is designed with two pairs of Cisco Nexus 9300 platform switches. One pair of Cisco Nexus 9300 platform switches functions as a vPC VTEP that maps between the VXLAN and VLAN. 

The second pair is an IP gateway for the VXLAN-extended VLANs. There is a double-sized vPC between the two pairs of switches for Layer 2 connectivity. A separate set of Layer 3 links can be installed for routing between the VXLAN VLAN to non-VXLAN VLANs or an IP network. The relevant configuration of the devices in the routing block is provided

Note: Because of a known software issue, the peer links of the vPC VTEPs and the Layer 2 links to the routers in the routing block can’t be on the 40 Gigabit Ethernet links of Cisco Nexus 9300 platform switches before Cisco NX-OS Release 6.1(2)I2(2a). This problem is fixed in Cisco NX-OS Release 6.1(2)I2(2a).



Inter-VXLAN Routing Design Option B: VTEP-on-a-Stick Design
One alternative design for inter-VXLAN routing is shown in Figure 17. It has a VTEP-on-a-stick design, in which one or a pair of Cisco Nexus 9300 VTEPs is connected to the aggregation switches through a Layer 2 link and a Layer 3 link. 

The Layer 3 links are used to establish VXLAN tunnels with the in-rack VTEP access switches to extend the host VLANs across the Layer 3 network. The aggregation switches are configured with the host VLANs and switch virtual interfaces (SVIs) for their IP subnets. 

HSRP and Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) can be used to provide the first-hop redundancy with a Layer 2 link in place between the two aggregation switches. The Cisco Nexus 9300 VTEPs map the VXLAN VNIs back to VLANs and send the traffic over the Layer 2 links to the aggregation switches for inter-VLAN routing. 

After the packets are routed to the destination VLAN IP subnet, the aggregation switches will send the packets back to the Cisco Nexus 9300 VTEPs through the Layer 2 links for VXLAN encapsulation. The encapsulated packets will be forwarded to the destination rack through the underlay Layer 3 network. 

In this design, the added Cisco Nexus 9300 VTEPs extend the host VLAN segments and bring them onto the aggregation switches. The aggregation switches are the centralized IP gateway for the VXLAN-extended VLANs.


The VTEP-on-a-stick design keeps the IP gateway of the VXLAN-extended VLANs on the aggregation switches, which preserves the IP gateway placement of the traditional Layer 2 data center pod. However, it may create blocks for migrating the network to a spine-and-leaf fabric architecture in the future. 

The routing block design, by contrast, makes it easier to transform the existing aggregation- and access-layer architecture into a true spine-and-leaf fabric, as shown in Figure below. This architecture truly enables Layer 2 adjacency across a routed (Layer 3) fabric


Currently Cisco Nexus 9300 platform switches support only VXLAN gateway and bridging functions. A planned future release of Cisco NX-OS will bring the VXLAN routing function to the Cisco Nexus 9300 platform, which will greatly simplify the network design for inter-VXLAN routing.
In addition, Cisco is working on a BGP EVPN control plane for VXLAN. The current multicast-based VXLAN lacks a control plane and has to rely on flooding and learning to build the Layer 2 forwarding information base in the overlay network. 

Multicast in the underlay network is used to support the overlay flood-and-learn behavior. The Cisco BGP EVPN control plane is standards based and does not depend on any fabric controllers. It will offer the following main benefits:
 Eliminate or reduce flooding in the data center
 Achieve optimal handling of multiple-destination traffic (broadcast, unknown unicast, and multicast) on overlay networks
 Provide reliable and quick address resolution and updates for hosts in VXLAN VNIs: essential to support workload mobility in the data center
 Provide a distributed anycast IP gateway for VXLAN overlay networks, enabling optimal VXLAN traffic routing across the Layer 3 network
Conclusion:-
VXLAN is a network virtualization technology. It uses MAC-in-UDP tunneling to build Layer 2 overlay networks across a Layer 3 infrastructure. This approach decouples the tenant network view from the shared common infrastructure, allowing organizations to build a scalable and reliable Layer 3 data center network while maintaining direct Layer 2 adjacency in the overlay network.


Cisco Nexus 9300 platform switches can be physical VTEPs, providing hardware-based high performance. 

VXLAN functions on Cisco Nexus 9300 platform switches are quickly evolving, with inter-VXLAN routing and EVPN control plane functions already planned. After these enhancements become available, the VXLAN overlay design with Cisco Nexus 9300 platform switches can be further optimized and simplified. 

This solution will provide the data center network design for a Layer 2 overlay across a Layer 3 fabric to help provide the application workload mobility and network virtualization required by multitenant environments.

Sunday, September 9, 2018

Cisco ASR 1002-X Basics

ılılılı Inderdeep Singh ılılılı
Cisco ASR 1002-X

# Cisco Routers
#CCIE Candidates 
# ASR Routers Specifications
# Capacity and Utilization
# RP and ESP Processors
# RP - Route Processors
# ESP - Embedded Processors

Lets talk about the basics of Cisco ASR 1002-X Router now, Similar with the ASR 1001-X Router but the difference is the inbuilt capacity in the ASR 1002-X Routers differ from ASR 1001-X Routers.

Further we can also discuss the difference between the route processors and Embedded processors and the use of these processors in ASR Routers.

ASR routers are generally used where we have the demand of the high bandwidth, likewise we have the customer and the capacity requirement for the WAN network is more and equal to 1 Gbps and in future the capacity increase to 2,5 or 10 Gbps, then can use ASR routers.

Some of the requirement where we are providing solution in the DC and we need to provide the High end routers as CE routers, then we can have the ASR Routers.

Fig 1.1- ASR 1002-X 

Note: - We can upgrade the back-plane capacity of the ASR routers by putting the license of Embedded processor like ESP-5, ESP-10, ESP-20. So we can upgrade the Back-plane capacity up-to 20 Gbps in ASR Routers.

Further if you guys have any queries about the Cisco ASR Routers in terms of Hardware or the functionality of the routers, we feel free to contact us so that we can explain the information related to the Cisco ASR routers. 

Lets talk about the routers in details as follows:- 

Cisco ASR 1000 series Aggregation services Routers mixture more than one WAN connections and community offerings, which include encryption and traffic management, and forward them across WAN connections at line speeds from 2.5 to 2 hundred Gbps. The routers include each hardware and software program redundancy in an enterprise-leading excessive-availability design.

The today's addition to the Cisco ASR circle of relatives is the Cisco ASR 1001-X Router, a single-rack-unit (RU) router helping 2.5- to twenty-Gbps forwarding ability. Cisco ASR 1001-X Router speeds may be “became up” incrementally to as an awful lot as 20 Gbps with a simple throughput improve license, rather than having to buy additional hardware blades or new routers.

The Cisco ASR a thousand series helps Cisco IOS XE software program, a modular operating system with modular packaging, feature speed, and effective resiliency. The Cisco ASR one thousand collection Embedded offerings Processors (ESPs), that are based on Cisco Quantum float Processor technology, boost up many superior features which includes crypto-based totally access protection; community deal with Translation (NAT), thread protection with Cisco area-primarily based Firewall (ZBFW), deep packet inspection (DPI), Cisco Unified Border element (dice), and a numerous set of information middle interconnect (DCI) capabilities. those offerings are implemented in Cisco IOS XE software program without the want for extra hardware help.

Cisco ASR 1000 Routers sit at the edge of your enterprise data center or large office connecting to the WAN, as well as in service provider points of presence (POPs). The Cisco ASR 1000 Series will benefit the following types of customers:
Enterprises experiencing explosive network traffic as mobility, cloud networking, and video and collaboration usage ramp up. Cisco ASRs consolidate these various traffic streams and apply traffic management and redundancy properties to them to maintain consistent performance among enterprise sites and cloud locations.
Network service providers needing to deliver high-performance services, such as DCI and branch-office server aggregation, to business customers. Service providers can also use the multiservice routers to deploy hosted and managed services to business and multimedia services to residential customers.

Existing Cisco 7200 Series Router (End-of-Sale) customers looking for simple migration to a new multiservice platform that delivers greater performance with the same design.

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